Fumaric acid is a naturally occurring organic compound, a colorless to white, water-soluble solid. It is used as an acidifier or flavoring agent. The malate anion is a nutrient required by many animal species.
White odorless powder or crystalline solid particles with a distinctive acidic taste, more acidic than citric acid.
It is soluble in ethanol (5.76 g/100 g, 30 °C), slightly soluble in water (0.63 g/100 mL, 25 °C) and ether, and extremely slightly soluble in chloroform.
Fumaric acid is also used as an antioxidant, mordant (a substance that helps dyes adhere to fabric), and buffer (helps maintain a specific acidity or alkalinity).
Fumaric acid is used to lower the pH (acidity makes things taste more acidic) which to some extent aids in the better working of antimicrobials, the malic acid itself can kill bacteria.
Fumaric acid breaks the disulfide bonds of elastic proteins in dough. This makes the dough easier to work with. Fumaric acid is used in the making of rye bread and with yeast to make them more acidic.
Fumaric acid combines with leavening agents (carbonyl dioxide gas produced to make bread rise) to create a slow release. Since malic acid only dissolves in warm water, the fermentation action is delayed until the bread is baked.
Oxalic acid is an organic compound with the chemical formula H₂C₂O₄. It is a weak dibasic acid, widely distributed in plant, animal, and fungal tissue, and performs different functions in different living organisms. Studies have found that more than 100 plants are rich in oxalic acid, especially spinach, amaranth, beetroot, pigweed, taro, sweet potato, and rhubarb. Oxalic acid is a colorless columnar crystal that is soluble in water but insoluble in organic solvents such as ether. The oxalate anion has strong chelating properties and is another type of metal chelator in plant-derived foods. When oxalic acid binds with some alkaline earth metal elements, its solubility is greatly reduced, as with calcium oxalate, which is almost insoluble in water.
Purifying agents in the pharmaceutical industry, especially for antibiotics such as tetracycline and chloramphenicol;
Precipitants in rare earth mineral processing;
Bleaching agents in the textile industry, wood pulp bleaching;
Rust removal agents for metal processing;
Abrasives, such as marble polishing agents;
Wastewater treatment for removing calcium from water.
Fruit acids, also known as α-hydroxy acids (AHAs), are a group of non-toxic organic compounds that have historically been used as beauty aids. Fruit acids permeate the skin, stimulate the release of new collagen, and make the skin look younger. AHAs also help to break down old, external dead cells that cause skin to look dull and flawed.
As ingredients for food and beverages.
As components for health products and weight loss aids.
As nutritional supplement ingredients.
As components for health foods and cosmetics.